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HISTORY    A^b    HUMAN    RELATIONS

of situations. He served the cause of history more by
his novels than by any of the actual history that he
attempted to write, which indeed came far short of die
kind of thing to which his fictional work was aspiring.
Even if nobody ever reads him any more he will remain
significant in the history of historical science not for the
light which he throws on any age of history, but because
he revealed so much concerning those operations which
are possible to students of the past for the achievement
of historical-mindedness. Some of the examples that I
have mentioned suggest that the literary historians of the
nineteenth century were the mediators" between Scott
and our modern historiography.

' Those of us who at the present time úre engaged in
the study of some particular period of the past have
come to be aware of the importance of unloading our
minds of all remembrance of after-events. For certain
purposes it is important to follow the story of the year
1788 without that particular bias which comes from the
fore-knowledge that the French Revolution was to occur
in the following year* And we are liable to fall into
fallacies or optical illusions if we judge every step in the
negotiations of July, 1914, in the light of our awareness
that they were certain to issue in a European war by the
close of the month. The historical novel does of
course demand on the whole that its author shall unload
from his mind, and withhold from the reader, the
knowledge of the after-event; for the whole under-
taking to portray life is vitiated if the chanciness, the
tensions and the surprises are allowed to be eliminated.
The detailed narratives of the larger literary histories

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